Cardiac Output: There are three ways to obtain Cardiac Output (FICK formula, Angiographic Cardiac Output, or Themodilution Cardiac Output).

The FICK formula, proposed by Adolph Fick, is considered the "gold standard" of Cardiac Output. It determines blood flow by measuring oxygen uptake. It requires 5 elements:

  1. Hemoglobin: obtained from blood sample
  2. Aortic O2 saturation: obtained from arterial blood sample
  3. Pulmonary Artery O2 saturation: obtained from pulmonary arterial blood sample
  4. Hemoglobin O2 carrying constant: 1.36 (each gram of hemoglobin can carry 1.36 mL of O2)
  5. Oxygen consumption (VO2): 3 mL 02 * weigh (KG).

The Angiographic Cardiac Output is detemined by cine films of the Left Ventricular Angiogram. It is calculated by using Stroke Volume.

The Cardiac Index is useful in determining heart performance to the size of the individual

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